Southport Central Chiropractic

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References and Research Studies

chiropractic References and research list for articles, blog posts, and website content used on southport central chiropractic resources including social media

chiropractic research and references

According to the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law – Section 133 – as a ‘regulated health service’ we must adhere to the rules that govern advertising for EVERY article, blog post, social media post, picture, video or comment that we make regarding that regulated profession – this includes providing links for Chiropractic References Research articles that we rely on.

Specifically we “must not advertise a regulated health service, or a business that provides a regulated health service, in a way that –

  1. is false, misleading or deceptive or is likely to be …; or
  2. offers a gift, discount or other inducement …, unless the advertisement also states the terms and conditions of the offer; or
  3. uses testimonials or purported testimonials about the service or business; or
  4. creates an unreasonable expectation of beneficial treatment; or
  5. directly or indirectly encourages the indiscriminate or unnecessary use of regulated health services

So in order to make absolutely certain that we are adhering to the rules we always reference all our sources of information. The list of these chiropractic reference and research articles can be found on this page. All links were correct at the time of publication, however if the third-party site has changed or removed the reference or research article since the link was published on this page please let us know:

Whiplash –

Low back Pain –—executive-summary.pdf

Quality of Life –

Neck Pain –

Headaches & Migraines–

Stress Management –

Safety of Chiropractic Care – 

Schneider M, et al. “Chiropractic Care for Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews.” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2019 Jul 26;20(1):343.

Bronfort G, et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Chiropractic Care for the Treatment of Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review.” Journal of the American Medical Association, 2018 Mar 6;319(9):927-937.

Rubinstein SM, et al. “Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Chronic Low-Back Pain: An Update of a Cochrane Review.” Spine, 2011 Apr 15;36(8):E493-E509.

Bronfort G, et al. “Noninvasive Physical Treatments for Chronic/Recurrent Headache.” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2010 Nov 10;(11):CD001878.

Haas M, et al. “Chiropractic Care for Nonmusculoskeletal Conditions: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 2017 Jul – Aug;40(6):405-413.


  1. Williams PT, Thompson PD. Walking versus running for hypertension, cholesterol, and diabetes mellitus risk reduction. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2013 May;33(5):1085-91.
  2. US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition. Washington (DC): US Government Printing Office; 2018.
  3. Omura JD, Ussery EN, Loustalot F, Fulton JE, Carlson SA. Peer Reviewed: Walking as an Opportunity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2019;16.
  4. Tanasescu M, Leitzmann MF, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB. Exercise type and intensity in relation to coronary heart disease in men. JAMA. 2002 Oct 23;288(16):1994-2000.
  5. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, Rexrode KM, Willett WC, Manson JE. Physical activity and risk of stroke in women. JAMA. 2000 Jun 14;283(22):2961-7.
  6. Hu FB, Sigal RJ, Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, Solomon CG, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Manson JE. Walking compared with vigorous physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in women: a prospective study. JAMA. 1999 Oct 20;282(15):1433-9.
  7. Murtagh EM, Nichols L, Mohammed MA, Holder R, Nevill AM, Murphy MH. The effect of walking on risk factors for cardiovascular disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised control trials. Preventive medicine. 2015 Mar 1;72:34-43.
  8. Paula TP, Viana LV, Neto AT, Leitao CB, Gross JL, Azevedo MJ. Effects of the DASH diet and walking on blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and uncontrolled hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2015 Nov;17(11):895-901.
  9. Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Yardley JE, Riddell MC, Dunstan DW, Dempsey PC, Horton ES, Castorino K, Tate DF. Physical activity/exercise and diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes care. 2016 Nov 1;39(11):2065-79.
  10. Mendes R, Sousa N, Themudo-Barata JL, Reis VM. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Middle-Aged and Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial of the Acute Effects of Treadmill Walking on Glycemic Control. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019 Jan;16(21):4163.
  11. Mabire L, Mani R, Liu L, Mulligan H, Baxter D. The influence of age, sex and body mass index on the effectiveness of brisk walking for obesity management in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2017 May 1;14(5):389-407.
  12. Hori H, Ikenouchi-Sugita A, Yoshimura R, Nakamura J. Does subjective sleep quality improve by a walking intervention? A real-world study in a Japanese workplace. BMJ open. 2016 Oct 1;6(10).
  13. Tang MF, Chiu HY, Xu X, Kwok JY, Cheung DS, Chen CY, Lin CC. Walking is more effective than yoga at reducing sleep disturbance in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sleep medicine reviews. 2019 Oct 1;47:1-8.
  14. Kelly P, Williamson C, Niven AG, Hunter R, Mutrie N, Richards J. Walking on sunshine: scoping review of the evidence for walking and mental health. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018 Jun 1;52(12):800-6.
  15. Garcia L, Pearce M, Abbas A, Mok A, Strain T, Ali S, Crippa A, Dempsey PC, Golubic R, Kelly P, Laird Y. Non-occupational physical activity and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality outcomes: a dose–response meta-analysis of large prospective studies. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2023 Jan 24.
  16. Masuki S, Morikawa M, Nose H. High-intensity walking time is a key determinant to increase physical fitness and improve health outcomes after interval walking training in middle-aged and older people. InMayo Clinic Proceedings 2019 Dec 1 (Vol. 94, No. 12, pp. 2415-2426). Elsevier.
  17. Imran TF, Orkaby A, Chen J, Selvaraj S, Driver JA, Gaziano JM, Djoussé L. Walking pace is inversely associated with risk of death and cardiovascular disease: The Physicians’ Health Study. Atherosclerosis. 2019 Oct 1;289:51-6.
  18. Stamatakis E, Kelly P, Strain T, Murtagh EM, Ding D, Murphy MH. Self-rated walking pace and all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality: individual participant pooled analysis of 50 225 walkers from 11 population British cohorts. British journal of sports medicine. 2018 Jun 1;52(12):761-8.
  19. Celis-Morales CA, Gray S, Petermann F, Iliodromiti S, Welsh P, Lyall DM, Anderson J, Pellicori P, Mackay DF, Pell JP, Sattar N. Walking pace is associated with lower risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2019;51(3):472-80.
  20. Grøntved A, Hu FB. Walking pace and handgrip strength: simple measures of fitness and mortality risk?Eur Heart J. 2017 Nov 14;38(43):3241-3243.
  21. Saint-Maurice PF, Troiano RP, Bassett DR, Graubard BI, Carlson SA, Shiroma EJ, Fulton JE, Matthews CE. Association of daily step count and step intensity with mortality among US adults. JAMA. 2020 Mar 24;323(12):1151-60.
  22. Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Kamada M, Bassett DR, Matthews CE, Buring JE. Association of step volume and intensity with all-cause mortality in older women. JAMA internal medicine. 2019 Aug 1;179(8):1105-12. *Disclosure: DR Bassett reports receiving personal and travel fees from ActiGraph outside of the submitted work and is a member of its Scientific Advisory Board; the device used in this study was selected in 2009, prior to his involvement in the study.
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How much physical activity do adults need? Accessed 11/13/2020.
  24. Farren L, Belza B, Allen P, Brolliar S, Brown DR, Cormier ML, Janicek S, Jones DL, King DK, Marquez DX, Rosenberg DE. Peer Reviewed: Mall Walking Program Environments, Features, and Participants: A Scoping Review. Preventing chronic disease. 2015;12.
  25. King DK, Allen P, Jones DL, Marquez DX, Brown DR, Rosenberg D, Janicek S, Allen L, Belza B. Safe, affordable, convenient: environmental features of malls and other public spaces used by older adults for walking. Journal of physical activity and health. 2016 Mar 1;13(3):289-95.
  26. Crowley P, Madeleine P, Vuillerme N. The effects of mobile phone use on walking: a dual task study. BMC research notes. 2019 Dec;12(1):352.
  27. Gainey A, Himathongkam T, Tanaka H, Suksom D. Effects of Buddhist walking meditation on glycemic control and vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2016 Jun 1;26:92-7.
  28. Song C, Ikei H, Park BJ, Lee J, Kagawa T, Miyazaki Y. Psychological benefits of walking through forest areas. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2018 Dec;15(12):2804.
  29. Gotink RA, Hermans KS, Geschwind N, De Nooij R, De Groot WT, Speckens AE. Mindfulness and mood stimulate each other in an upward spiral: a mindful walking intervention using experience sampling. Mindfulness. 2016 Oct 1;7(5):1114-22.
Please note: we do our best to update this chiropractic references research article list regularly, especially after posting new content. If you feel this list is incomplete please let us know.